scientist working at the laboratory

Facts About Female Fertility – Tests -3

In this article lets discuss about the tests for females to determine the cause of infertility. In some cases, a cause is never identified.

If a female  unable to conceive within a reasonable period of time, seek help from your doctor for evaluation and treatment of infertility. Fertility tests may include:

Ovulation testing

ovulation test strips

An at-home, over-the-counter ovulation prediction kit detects the surge in luteinizing hormone (LH) that occurs before ovulation. A blood test for progesterone — a hormone produced after ovulation — can also document that you’re ovulating. Other hormone levels, such as prolactin, also may be checked.



During hysterosalpingography (his-tur-o-sal-ping-GOG-ruh-fee), X-ray contrast is injected into your uterus and an X-ray is taken to detect abnormalities in the uterine cavity. The test also determines whether the fluid passes out of the uterus and spills out of your fallopian tubes. If abnormalities are found, you’ll likely need further evaluation. In a few women, the test itself can improve fertility, possibly by flushing out and opening the fallopian tubes

Ovarian reserve testing

causes of infertilityThis testing helps determine the quality and quantity of eggs available for ovulation. Women at risk of a depleted egg supply — including women older than 35 — may have this series of blood and imaging tests

Other hormone testing

Hormone testing

Other hormone tests check levels of ovulatory hormones as well as thyroid and pituitary hormones that control reproductive processes.

Imaging tests

Imaging TestsA pelvic ultrasound looks for uterine or fallopian tube disease. Sometimes a hysterosonography (his-tur-o-suh-NOG-ruh-fee) is used to see details inside the uterus that can’t be seen on a regular ultrasound.

Depending on your situation, rarely your testing may include:

Other imaging tests

Imaging Tests

Depending on your symptoms, your doctor may request a hysteroscopy to look for uterine or fallopian tube disease.


LaproscopyThis minimally invasive surgery involves making a small incision beneath your navel and inserting a thin viewing device to examine your fallopian tubes, ovaries and uterus. A laparoscopy may identify endometriosis, scarring, blockages or irregularities of the fallopian tubes, and problems with the ovaries and uterus.

Genetic testing

Genetic TestingGenetic testing helps determine whether there’s a genetic defect causing infertility.

Let us see the Diagnosis and Treatment for infertility and in subsequent articles.

Do you have questions after reading this article? Please let us know! Leave a comment below, we would love to give you some answers!



what is pep

Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP)

Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) means taking antiretroviral medicines (ART) after being potentially exposed to HIV to prevent becoming infected.

Post-exposure prophylaxis, or PEP, is another name for emergency HIV treatment. PEP is not a cure for HIV, it is a form of HIV prevention. It is a short course of antiretroviral drugs that stops exposure to HIV from becoming a life-long infection.

PEP should be started within 72 hours after a recent possible exposure to HIV. If you think you’vepost exposure prophylaxis (PEP)

Recently been exposed to HIV during sex or unprotected Sex.

Causes of HIV

Through sharing needles and works to prepare drugs

Causes of HIV

If sexually assaulted seek urgent medical help.


Relief from stress

Health care workers exposed to HIV at Work.

If you think that you have been exposed to HIV visit a healthcare clinic, doctor, pharmacy or contact us immediately.

Not everyone is given PEP and it is not available everywhere. A healthcare professional will advise you if they think you should take PEP.

PEP and HIV testing


It’s normal to feel anxious about being infected with HIV.Test for HIV in the following duration after exposure.

  • If you took PEP – get tested 3 and 6 months after potential exposure.
  • If you didn’t take PEP – get tested 3 months after potential exposure

Emotional support, advice and counselling

CounsellingGetting the right support is important before, during and after taking PEP. It can help address any concerns or fears that you might have. Attend follow-up visits with your healthcare team regularly.

PEP must not be used as a frequent way to prevent HIV infection. Use condoms and safer sex practises to prevent sexual transmission of HIV.

When Should you start PEP?

Start PepPEP must be started within 72 hours after a possible exposure. The sooner you start PEP, the better; every hour counts.

Starting PEP as soon as possible after a potential HIV exposure is important. Research has shown that PEP has little or no effect in preventing HIV infection if it is started later than 72 hours after HIV exposure.

How long Should PEP is Prescribed?

PEP drugs to be taken once or twice daily for 28 days.

How effective is PEP Therapy?

PEP is effective in preventing HIV when administered correctly, but not 100%.

Pep Therapy

If you think that you have been exposed to HIV visit a healthcare clinic, doctor, pharmacy or contact us immediately.

Do you have questions after reading this article? Please let us know! Leave a comment below, we would love to give you some answers!



Facts About Male Fertility – Tests -3

In this article lets discuss about the tests to determine the cause of infertility. In some cases, a cause is never identified.
Diagnosing male infertility problems usually involves:

General physical examination and medical history.

This includes examining your genitals and asking questions about any inherited conditions, chronic health problems, illnesses, injuries or surgeries that could affect fertility. Your doctor might also ask about your sexual habits and about your sexual development during puberty.

Semen analysis

You can provide a semen sample by masturbating and ejaculating into a special container at the doctor’s office or by using a special condom to collect semen during intercourse.

Your semen is then sent to a laboratory to measure the number of sperm present and look for any abnormalities in the shape (morphology) and movement (motility) of the sperm. The lab will also check your semen for signs of problems such as infections.

Often sperm counts fluctuate significantly from one specimen to the next. In most cases, several semen analysis tests are done over a period of time to ensure accurate results. If your sperm analysis is normal, your doctor will likely recommend thorough testing of your female partner before conducting any more male infertility tests.
Your doctor might recommend additional tests to help identify the cause of your infertility.

Scrotal ultrasound.

Scrotal ultrasoundThis test uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images inside your body. A scrotal ultrasound can help your doctor see if there is a varicocele or other problems in the testicles and supporting structures.

Hormone testing.

Hormone Testing

Hormones produced by the pituitary gland, hypothalamus and testicles play a key role in sexual development and sperm production. Abnormalities in other hormonal or organ systems might also contribute to infertility. A blood test measures the level of testosterone and other hormones.

Post-ejaculation urinalysis.

Post-ejaculation urinalysisSperm in your urine can indicate your sperm are traveling backward into the bladder instead of out your penis during ejaculation (retrograde ejaculation).
Genetic tests.

When sperm concentration is extremely low, there could be a genetic cause. A blood test can reveal whether there are subtle changes in the Y chromosome — signs of a genetic abnormality. Genetic testing might be ordered to diagnose various congenital or inherited syndromes.

Testicular biopsy.

Testicular biopsy

This test involves removing samples from the testicle with a needle. If the results of the testicular biopsy show that sperm production is normal your problem is likely caused by a blockage or another problem with sperm transport.
However, this test is not commonly used to diagnose the cause of infertility.

Specialized sperm function tests. A number of tests can be used to check how well your sperm survive after ejaculation, how well they can penetrate an egg, and whether there’s any problem attaching to the egg. Generally, these tests are rarely performed and often do not significantly change recommendations for treatment.

Transrectal ultrasound.

Transrectal ultrasound

A small, lubricated wand is inserted into your rectum. It allows your doctor to check your prostate, and look for blockages of the tubes that carry semen (ejaculatory ducts and seminal vesicles).

Let us see the Diagnosis and Treatment for infertility and in subsequent articles.

Do you have questions after reading this article? Please let us know! Leave a comment below, we would love to give you some answers!

Facts About Female Fertility – EGG-2

We always hear about how interesting men’s sperm are – how quick, agile and strong they are, able to traverse the long journey to the egg, but how much do we know about the other genetic half of a child – the female egg ?

Before we discuss about the Causes of female infertility Lets see some most fascinating facts about human eggs, and the intricate processes of ovulation and conception.

Eggs are made early

Female Fertility

The female body starts making eggs at nine weeks. Not nine weeks after birth, but nine weeks after conception. By the time it’s five months old, a female fetus has made upward of 7 million oocytes. By the time of birth, the vast majority of these immature egg cells have died. That’s normal..

Size of an Egg

Size of an eggHuman egg is one of the biggest cells in a woman’s body. It is about the size of a grain of sand and can actually be seen with the naked eye. To put this into perspective, an egg is about 4 times bigger than a skin cell, 26 times bigger than a red blood cell, and 16 times bigger than a sperm!

Eggs are precious

human eggs

On average, women ovulate a mere 400 to 500 eggs in her lifetime. That makes eggs far rarer than sperm. In fact, more sperm cells are released during a single ejaculation than a woman produces her entire life.

Maybe that’s one reason why eggs are worth so much more than sperm. An egg donor gets mre paid than a Sperm donar.

How Ovaries select the Eggs for Ovulation


Unlike other cells in the body, egg cells take years to “grow up.” That is, they spend years inside the ovaries in an immature state, maturing just before they are released during the process of ovulation.

Among the hundreds of eggs in this half-mature state, what causes one egg and not the others to be released? No one knows.

Eggs are fragile and age fast

vitrificationA technique called vitrification, doesn’t actually involve freezing eggs but hardening their outer later, like encasing them in a glass container. Young women have plenty of healthy eggs. In fact, about 90 percent of the eggs of a 21-year-old woman are viable. Only about 10 percent of the eggs of a 41-year-old woman might be viable. That’s why some young women are having their eggs extracted and frozen – just in case it takes a while to find Mr. Right.

We can know about in detail in subsequent articles.

Eggs are monogamous

FertilizationWhen discussing fertilization, the egg is often portrayed as a passive player in the drama of conception, waiting patiently for the first sperm to arrive and burst in. But research has shown that the egg has a much bigger role than previously thought, and that she is in fact quite picky! Although we usually think of the sperm doing all the hard work of fertilization, penetrating the docile egg, it is now believed that the egg actually chooses who she lets in or not.

What decides which sperm will be the lucky one?


The egg appears to give preference to sperm with intact DNA, producing a compound that softens the outer layer of the egg to allow specific sperm to enter. These studies also suggest that the egg may even actively bind sperm to its surface, thereby not giving the sperm any choice in the matter, trapping the sperm it has chosen. Once a sperm has made its way in, the outer layer of the egg hardens, which prevents entry to any other suitors.

Egg donation – not so fun

Egg DonationSperm donation involves not much more than masturbating. Egg donors must undergo a complicated medical procedure. First, the donor gets hormone injections that “hyperstimulate” the ovaries so that they’ll create not one egg but dozens. When the timing is right, doctors insert a catheter inside the birth canal to suck the fluid from the follicle, hoping to snatch a few eggs.

Do you have questions after reading this article? Please let us know! Leave a comment below, we would love to give you some answers!

Facts About Male Fertility – Sperm -2

Sperm may be sort of funny looking like tadpoles in a panic ,but it’s a lot more complex and interesting than one might imagine. But how much do we know about these little wigglers on which the survival of our species depends? Well, you’re about to learn a little more.

Sperm vs. Semen

Male Fertility

Some people use the terms sperm and semen interchangeably. But sperm cells are the carriers of genetic material . Sperm Cells are made in Testicles and the Semen is Fluid from the prostate contains chemicals that cause semen to liquefy once it’s inside the female. Without it, sperm would be locked in place and unable to swim.


Abnormal Sperm? That’s Normal

Abnormal sperm

Human sperm-making machinery almost 90 percent of the sperm in a man’s ejaculate are deformed? Two heads, two tails, huge heads, pinheads, coiled tails – the list of common deformities is a long one. But its ok. The egg has the capacity to choose the best of the best sperm.

Sperm Factory

Sperm Factory

Although there’s a large turnover of sperm, the latest studies suggest that sperm takes more than two whole months to form. If someone is born without a testicle, or there is an accident, that person can still conceive. In fact, the other testicle usually grows in order to compensate.  How long can a sperm cell live once inside a woman’s body? About two days.

Half Teaspoon


Half a teaspoon , That’s how a man typically ejaculates. Each ejaculates should contain 200 million sperm (20 million sperm per milliliter). It takes only one sperm cell to fertilize a woman’s egg – but there’s stiff competition for that honor Sperm Wear Hard Hats.

Sperms are far too tiny to see with the naked eye. How tiny? Each one measures about 0.002 inch from head to tail, or about 50 micrometers.

Sperm Wear Helmet

Sperms size

Sperm wears a helmet that allows it to fertilize the egg. The helmet is called an acrosome. When the sperm hits the egg the acrosome releases chemicals that melt the surface of the egg so that the sperm can enter to release its genetic cargo.


ChromosonesOnce a sperm fuses with an egg, the chromosomes swap bits of DNA. The Y chromosome is the chromosome that makes a male a male. Every other chromosome in the body is a combination of your mother’s genes and father’s genes, but the Y chromosome cannot be mixed

But there’s one exception: the Y chromosome has no counterpart within the egg’s DNA, In fact, a man’s Y chromosome looks just like his father’s and his father’s father’s, and so on, back through the generations.


The Factory Never Closes

The Factory Never Closes

Women are born with all the eggs they’ll ever have and usually in their middle age they’re done being fertile. Men, on the other hand, are always producing sperm throughout their life. Of course, the quality of the sperm does degenerate a bit with age.

Sperm Need Protection

Sperm need protection

Sperm start out looking pretty much like any cell in the body. But by the time they’re ready to leave the testicles, they have half as much DNA as other cells in the body. That makes them look a bit suspicious to the body’s immune system. Luckily, there are cells that surround and protect the sperm so that they aren’t attacked. the testicles employ specialized cells to surround them with a sort of “picket fence.”

Dead Sperm Can Make Live Babies

Dead Sperm Can Make Live Babies

To fertilize an egg the old-fashioned way, sperm need to be able to swim. Not so with in-vitro (test tube) fertilization. In fact, when IVF technicians use tiny, robotically controlled glass straws to insert a single sperm inside an egg, they sometimes beat the sperm with the glass until it stops moving. The only thing that matters is the DNA inside the sperm.

Stay Cool

Stay Cool

Guy’s testicles stay cool – about 7 degrees Fahrenheit cooler than ordinary body temperature. That’s just right for producing healthy sperm. A man’s body keeps the ideal testicle temperature with radiator-like veins that pull heat away and muscles in the scrotum that raise and lower the testicles to bring them closer to the body’s warmth – or farther away.

Do you have questions after reading this article? Please let us know! Leave a comment below, we would love to give you some answers!