Glaucoma – “Silent Thief of Sight”

Glaucoma also known as “Silent Thief of Sight” is the eye condition in which optic nerve undergoes slow degeneration. It rarely shows any symptoms at initial stage as there will not be even any pain or redness of the eye.

Glaucoma is a disease that damages your eye’s optic nerve. It usually happens when fluid builds up in the front part of your eye. That extra fluid increases the pressure in your eye, damaging the optic nerve.

Here are the signs of an acute angle-closure glaucoma attack:

  • Your vision is suddenly blurry
  • Severe eye pain
  • You have a headache
  • You may feel sick to your stomach (nausea)
  • Throw up (vomit)
  • You see rainbow-colored rings or halos around lights


Tests to detect Glaucoma

To be safe and accurate, you should undertake these following 5 tests regularly to detect Glaucoma at an early stage: 

TONOMETRY – This test examines inner eye pressure and is done with the help of an instrument called tonometer. The air is puffed in eyes and the pressure is calculated according to that. This test will not take much of your time and is painless too.

GONIOSCOPY – This test examines the angle where iris meets cornea in the eye. The instrument helps in viewing the front part of the eye and to determine whether the angle is narrow or open. This test also helps in determing if any excessive pigment is blocking the drainage of humor inside the eye.

PACHYMETRY – The thickness of the cornea is checked with this test. Doctor uses ultrasonic wave instrument called pachymeter. If the central cornea thickness is thin then it is a strong predictor of Glaucoma.

VISUAL FIELD TEST – This test is also known as Perimetry and checks the complete vision of the eye. It measures the entire area seen by the person forward looking and sideways. The doctor will be able to evaluate in this if your peripheral vision is getting lost.

OPHTHALMOSCOPY – Also known as Dilated eye exam examines the shape and color of the optic nerve. It gives the complete evaluation of interior of the eye. This test will help in detecting if you have Glaucoma and of you have so how extensive it is.

There are many other tests which helps in early detection of Glaucoma like OCT (Optic Coherence Tomography), etc. You should always keep tonometry and opthalmoscopy in your routine eye tests.

Treatment for Glaucoma

Glaucoma is usually controlled with eyedrop medicine. Used every day, these eye drops lower eye pressure. Some do this by reducing the amount of aqueous fluid the eye makes. Others reduce pressure by helping fluid flow better through the drainage angle.


Laser Surgery

There are two main types of laser surgery to treat glaucoma. They help aqueous drain from the eye. These procedures are usually done in the ophthalmologist’s office or an outpatient surgery center.


This surgery is for people who have open-angle glaucoma. The eye surgeon uses a laser to make the drainage angle work better. That way fluid flows out properly and eye pressure is reduced.


This is for people who have angle-closure glaucoma. The ophthalmologist uses a laser to create a tiny hole in the iris. This hole helps fluid flow to the drainage angle.

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pep and std

Post-Exposure Prophylaxis & Sexually Transmitted Disease

Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) means taking antiretroviral medicines (ART) after being potentially exposed to HIV to prevent becoming infected.

Post-exposure prophylaxis, or PEP, is another name for emergency HIV treatment. PEP is not a cure for HIV, it is a form of HIV prevention. It is a short course of antiretroviral drugs that stops exposure to HIV from becoming a life-long infection.

PEP should be started within 72 hours after a recent possible exposure to HIV. If you think you’ve

Recently been exposed to HIV during sex or unprotected Sex.

Causes of HIV

Through sharing needles and works to prepare drugs

Causes of HIV

If sexually assaulted seek urgent medical help.


Relief from stress

Health care workers exposed to HIV at Work.

If you think that you have been exposed to HIV visit a healthcare clinic, doctor, pharmacy or contact us immediately.

Not everyone is given PEP and it is not available everywhere. A healthcare professional will advise you if they think you should take PEP.

PEP and HIV testing


It’s normal to feel anxious about being infected with HIV.Test for HIV in the following duration after exposure.

  • If you took PEP – get tested 3 and 6 months after potential exposure.
  • If you didn’t take PEP – get tested 3 months after potential exposure

Emotional support, advice and counselling

CounsellingGetting the right support is important before, during and after taking PEP. It can help address any concerns or fears that you might have. Attend follow-up visits with your healthcare team regularly.

PEP must not be used as a frequent way to prevent HIV infection. Use condoms and safer sex practises to prevent sexual transmission of HIV.

When Should you start PEP?

Start PepPEP must be started within 72 hours after a possible exposure. The sooner you start PEP, the better; every hour counts.

Starting PEP as soon as possible after a potential HIV exposure is important. Research has shown that PEP has little or no effect in preventing HIV infection if it is started later than 72 hours after HIV exposure.

How long Should PEP is Prescribed?

PEP drugs to be taken once or twice daily for 28 days.

How effective is PEP Therapy?

PEP is effective in preventing HIV when administered correctly, but not 100%.

Pep Therapy

If you think that you have been exposed to HIV visit a healthcare clinic, doctor, pharmacy or contact us immediately.


Sexually Transmitted Disease


Sexually Transmitted Diseases STDs are infections that are passed from one person to another during vaginal, anal, and oral sex. They’re truly common, and plenty of people who have them don’t have any symptoms. STDs can be dangerous, however, most STDs are treatable. Test yourself for STD

  1. If you think you recently been exposed to during sex or unprotected Sex.
  2. Through sharing needles and works to prepare drugs
  3. If sexually assaulted seek urgent medical help.
  4. Health care workers exposed at Work.

Types of STD:

Sexually Transmitted Disease can be Caused by Viruses, Bacteria, Parasites. Let us see various pathology of STD.

STDs caused by viruses:

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

HIV causes the immune system – the device in the body that is supposed to fight off infection – to not work as properly as it should. This makes humans with HIV more probably to get infections and some other diseases, like some cancers. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS.

Hepatitis viruses

Hepatitis is an infection of the liver. There are three common types of hepatitis:

  1. Hepatitis A
  2. Hepatitis B
  3. Hepatitis C.

Hepatitis-A causes a short-term liver infection. Hepatitis-B and hepatitis-C cause much more serious, long-lasting liver problems

Both can purpose very bad liver disease, like cirrhosis, and death. They are more probably than hepatitis A to be spread by having sex.

Human papillomavirus (HPV)

There are about 40 different types of HPV that can be spread through sex and affect the anus and genitals. Examples of diseases that HPV can reason include:

  1. Genital warts
  2. Cancers of the penis, vagina, anal, mouth, or throat
  3. Cervical cancer (over 70% of cervical cancers – 7 cases out of each and every 10 – are brought about through HPV)

Herpes simplex virus

The herpes simplex virus (HSV) causes genital herpes. Genital herpes can cause painful blisters on the genitals and anus. Herpes can also cause sores in the mouth. There is no cure for herpes.

STDs Caused by Bacteria:


Chlamydia is one of the most frequent STD in the world. It was caused by bacteria. About 30% of the world population get chlamydia infection every year.

If chlamydia is not treated, it can cause a serious problem. Like diseases of the genitals and eyes. It can even reason blindness. It can also purpose permanent damage to a woman reproductive system if it is no longer treated.


It can infect the genitals, mouth, throat, rectum, and eyes. In bad cases, it can spread via the blood to infect the body’s joints. In the worst cases, it can spread through the blood and infect the heart (causing endocarditis, and contamination of the heart’s valves) or the spinal wire inflicting meningitis.


Syphilis can cause many serious problems if it is not treated. It makes a person much more likely to get HIV because it causes sores on the genitals that make it easier for HIV (and other STDs) to get spread. After a few years, if people with syphilis do not get treated, they can have serious problems with them in their body.Eventually – without treatment – syphilis infects the brain and causes death.

STDs Caused by parasites:


Trichomoniasis a germ causing a benign infection known as trichomoniasis. It is the treatable infection which is cured with a simple course of antibiotics. The symptoms it causes are common STD symptoms, namely an abnormal discharge from the genitals and pain when urinating or when having sex.

Symptoms of emergency STD:

  1. Chest pain
  2. Severe pain
  3. Uncontrolled bleeding
  4. Persistent diarrhea/vomiting
  5. Vomiting/coughing blood
  6. Shortness of breath
  7. Sudden dizziness, fainting, weakness or mental status changes

 Protection before STD:

causes of HIV

Effective STD prevention starts before sexual activity occurs. Here are some steps you can take to decrease your STD danger before having sex:

  1. Avoid sex when under the influence of drugs or alcohol.
  2. Get tested, along with your partners, before having sex.
  3. Limit our number of sexual partners.
  4. Talk honestly with potential partners about both of your sexual histories.
  5. Get vaccinated against the hepatitis B (HBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV)

Having a conversation about sexual fitness with your associate is key, however not every person with STDs knows they’re infected. That’s why it’s so essential to get tested before you have sex with a new partner.

Prevention of STD

The only way for a person to be positive they will not get an STD is for that person not to have sex. This includes sex of any kind.

There are some things that a person can do to make it less likely to get an STI:

  1. Practice safer sex. Use condoms and different types of birth control
  2. Stay with one sexual partner who has tested negative for STDs
  3. Do not have sex with anyone until you are each tested for STDs
  4. Get the vaccines for HPV, hepatitis A, and hepatitis B


If your sexual records and modern signs and symptoms recommend that you have an STI, laboratory assessments can discover the purpose and realize co-infections you may have contracted.

  1. Urine samples.Some STIs can be confirmed with a urine sample.
  2. Blood tests.It can confirm the diagnosis of HIV or later stages of syphilis.
  3. Fluid samples.If you have active genital sores, testing fluid and samples from the sores may be done to diagnose the type of infection. Laboratory tests of material from a genital sore or discharge are used to diagnose some STIs.


Blood TestTesting for a disease in anyone who would not have symptoms is called screening. Most of the time, STD screening is not a routine part of health care, however, there are exceptions:

  1. The STI screening test is suggested  for everyone who has ages 13 to 64 is a saliva or blood test for HIV,
  2. Pregnant women. Screening for HIV, chlamydia, hepatitis-B, and syphilis commonly take place at the first prenatal visit for all pregnant women. Hepatitis C and gonorrhea screening checks are advocated at least once at some point of pregnancy a for a female at high danger of these infections.
  3. Women age 21 and older. The Pap test displays for cervical abnormalities, consisting of precancerous changes, inflammation, and cancer, which is often induced by certain lines of human papillomavirus (HPV). Experts suggest that beginning at age 21, women should have a Pap check at least each and every three years. After age 30, women are recommended to have an HPV DNA test and a Pap test every 5 years or a Pap check every three years.
  4. Women under age 25 who are sexually active. All sexually energetic women below age 25 must be tested for chlamydia infection. The chlamydia test makes use of a pattern of urine or vaginal fluid you can acquire yourself. Some specialists suggest repeating the chlamydia test three months after you’ve had an effective test and been treated.
  5. Men who have sex with men. Compared with different groups, men who have sex with men run a greater chance of acquiring STIs. Many public health organizations suggest annual or more common STI screening for these men. Regular checks for HIV, syphilis, chlamydia and gonorrhea are particularly important.
  6. People with HIV. People with HIV should also be screened for Hepatitis C.If you have HIV, it dramatically raises your threat of catching other STIs. Experts suggest immediate checking out for chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhea, herpes and after being identified with HIV. Women with HIV may improve aggressive cervical cancer, so they have a Pap test within a year of being recognized with HIV, and then again six months later.
  7. People who have a new partner. Before having vaginal or anal intercourse with new partners, be sure that you’ve got each been examined for STIs. Keep in thinking that Human Papillomavirus (HPV) screening isn’t reachable for men. No exact screening test exists for genital herpes for both sex, so you may not be conscious you’re infected till you have symptoms.

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Here’s A Way To Solve A Problem with Sickle Cell Anemia

Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disorder which is hereditary in nature , a condition in which there are not sufficient healthy red blood cells to carry enough oxygen all through the body.

Sickle cell anemia is caused by a mutation of gene. Hemoglobin carries oxygen from the lungs to all other parts of the body. In sickle cell anemia, hemoglobin will be abnormally shaped like sickles or Crescent moon, which causes red blood cells to become rigid, sticky and misshapen. These irregularly formed cells can get stuck in small blood vessels, which can gradually slow down blood flow and oxygen to parts of the body.

The sickle cell gene is passed from generation to generation in a pattern of inheritance known as autosomal recessive inheritance. This means that both the mother and the father should pass by on the defective form of the gene for a baby to be affected.


Signs and symptoms of sickle cell anemia, which differ from person to person and change over time, include:


Sickle cells break apart easily and die, leaving you without sufficient red blood cells. Red blood cells usually live for about 120 days before they need to be replaced. But sickle cells die in 10 to 20 days, leaving a scarcity of red blood cells (anemia). Without enough red blood cells, the body cannot get the oxygen it wants to feel energized, causing fatigue.

                      Normal blood cellsickle cell

Episodes of pain. Periodic episodes of pain, called crises, are an important symptom of sickle cell anemia. Pain develops when sickle-shaped red blood cells block blood flow thru tiny blood vessels to the chest, abdomen and joints. Pain can also occur in the bones.

Painful swelling of arms and feet. The swelling is triggered by sickle-shaped red blood cells blocking blood waft to the arms and feet.

Frequent infections. Sickle cells can damage an organ that fights infection (spleen), leaving you greater vulnerable to infections. Doctors normally give infants and teenagers with sickle cell anemia vaccinations and antibiotics to stop potentially life-threatening infections, such as pneumonia.

Delayed growth. Red blood cells provide the oxygen and nutrients the body growth. A shortage of healthy red blood cells can gradual the normal growth cycle and delays puberty in teenagers.

Vision problems. Tiny blood vessels that supply the eyes may also become plugged with sickle cells. This can harm the retina — the portion of the eye that processes visual images, leading to vision problems.


Sickle cell anemia can lead to a host of complications, including Stroke, Acute chest syndrome, pulmonary hypertension. Organ damage, Blindness, Leg ulcers, Gallstones, Priapism etc.


Medications used is not to treat sickle cell anemia but to avoid complications arise due to the disorder.


Antibiotics. Children with sickle cell anemia may start taking the antibiotic penicillin when they’re about 2 months old and proceed taking it till they’re at least 5 years old. Doing so helps stop infections, such as pneumonia, which can be life-threatening to a child with sickle cell anemia.

As an adult, if the spleen is removed or had pneumonia, you may want to take penicillin throughout the life.

Pain-relieving medications. To relieve pain during a sickle cell crisis, the health practitioner may prescribe pain medications.

Hydroxyurea (Droxia, Hydrea). When taken daily, hydroxyurea reduces the frequency of painful crises and may reduce the need for blood transfusions and hospitalizations. Hydroxyurea seems to work by stimulating production of fetal hemoglobin — a type of hemoglobin found in newborns that helps stop the formation of sickle cells.

Hydroxyurea will increase the risk of infections, and there is some situation that long-term use of this drug might cause problems later in life for people who take it for many years. More study is needed.

The physician can help you determine if this drug may be really useful for you or the child. Don’t take the drug if you are pregnant.

Vaccinations to prevent infections

Childhood vaccinations are necessary for preventing disease in all children. They’re even more important for kids with sickle cell anemia due to the fact their infections can be severe.

The physician will make sure the child receives all of the recommended childhood vaccinations. Vaccinations, such as the pneumococcal vaccine and the annual flu shot, are additionally important for adults with sickle cell anemia.

Blood transfusions

In blood transfusion, red blood cells are separated from the donated blood, then given intravenously to a person with sickle cell anemia.

blood transfusion

Blood transfusions increase the normal red blood cells in circulation, helping to relieve anemia. In adolescents with sickle cell anemia at high risk of stroke, normal blood transfusions can limit the risk. Transfusions can also be used to treat other issues of sickle cell anemia, or they can be given to prevent complications.

Blood transfusions elevate some risk, including infection and extra iron buildup in the body. Because excess iron can harm the heart, liver and other organs, people who endure regular transfusions may want remedy to reduce iron levels.


Bone marrow transplant, additionally known as stem cell transplant, gives the solely possible treatment for sickle cell anemia. It’s typically reserved for people younger than age sixteen because the risks extend for people older than 16 finding a donor is difficult, and the procedure has serious risks associated with it, inclusive of death.

Treatments may include medicines to reduce pain and stop complications, and blood transfusions, as well as a bone marrow transplant.

Bone marrow transplant

bone narrow transplant

A bone marrow transplant, also known as a stem cell transplant, involves replacing bone marrow affected by sickle cell anemia with healthy bone marrow from a donor. The procedure generally makes use of a matched donor, such as a sibling, who doesn’t have sickle cell anemia. For many, donors aren’t available. But stem cells from umbilical cord blood may be an option.

Because of the risks associated with a bone marrow transplant, the technique is recommended only for people, usually children, who have significant symptoms and issues from sickle cell anemia.

If a donor is found, the individual with sickle cell anemia receives radiation or chemotherapy to destroy or reduce his or her bone marrow stem cells. Healthy stem cells from the donor are injected intravenously into the bloodstream of the person with sickle cell anemia, where they migrate to the bone marrow and start producing new blood cells.

The technique requires a lengthy hospital stay. After the transplant, you’ll receive drugs to help prevent rejection of the donated stem cells. Even so, the body may reject the transplant, leading to life-threatening complications.

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