pep and std

Post-Exposure Prophylaxis & Sexually Transmitted Disease

Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) means taking antiretroviral medicines (ART) after being potentially exposed to HIV to prevent becoming infected.

Post-exposure prophylaxis, or PEP, is another name for emergency HIV treatment. PEP is not a cure for HIV, it is a form of HIV prevention. It is a short course of antiretroviral drugs that stops exposure to HIV from becoming a life-long infection.

PEP should be started within 72 hours after a recent possible exposure to HIV. If you think you’ve

Recently been exposed to HIV during sex or unprotected Sex.

Causes of HIV

Through sharing needles and works to prepare drugs

Causes of HIV

If sexually assaulted seek urgent medical help.

 

Relief from stress

Health care workers exposed to HIV at Work.

If you think that you have been exposed to HIV visit a healthcare clinic, doctor, pharmacy or contact us immediately.

Not everyone is given PEP and it is not available everywhere. A healthcare professional will advise you if they think you should take PEP.

PEP and HIV testing

HIV TESTING

It’s normal to feel anxious about being infected with HIV.Test for HIV in the following duration after exposure.

  • If you took PEP – get tested 3 and 6 months after potential exposure.
  • If you didn’t take PEP – get tested 3 months after potential exposure

Emotional support, advice and counselling

CounsellingGetting the right support is important before, during and after taking PEP. It can help address any concerns or fears that you might have. Attend follow-up visits with your healthcare team regularly.

PEP must not be used as a frequent way to prevent HIV infection. Use condoms and safer sex practises to prevent sexual transmission of HIV.

When Should you start PEP?

Start PepPEP must be started within 72 hours after a possible exposure. The sooner you start PEP, the better; every hour counts.

Starting PEP as soon as possible after a potential HIV exposure is important. Research has shown that PEP has little or no effect in preventing HIV infection if it is started later than 72 hours after HIV exposure.

How long Should PEP is Prescribed?

PEP drugs to be taken once or twice daily for 28 days.

How effective is PEP Therapy?

PEP is effective in preventing HIV when administered correctly, but not 100%.

Pep Therapy

If you think that you have been exposed to HIV visit a healthcare clinic, doctor, pharmacy or contact us immediately.

 

Sexually Transmitted Disease

 

Sexually Transmitted Diseases STDs are infections that are passed from one person to another during vaginal, anal, and oral sex. They’re truly common, and plenty of people who have them don’t have any symptoms. STDs can be dangerous, however, most STDs are treatable. Test yourself for STD

  1. If you think you recently been exposed to during sex or unprotected Sex.
  2. Through sharing needles and works to prepare drugs
  3. If sexually assaulted seek urgent medical help.
  4. Health care workers exposed at Work.

Types of STD:

Sexually Transmitted Disease can be Caused by Viruses, Bacteria, Parasites. Let us see various pathology of STD.

STDs caused by viruses:

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

HIV causes the immune system – the device in the body that is supposed to fight off infection – to not work as properly as it should. This makes humans with HIV more probably to get infections and some other diseases, like some cancers. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS.

Hepatitis viruses

Hepatitis is an infection of the liver. There are three common types of hepatitis:

  1. Hepatitis A
  2. Hepatitis B
  3. Hepatitis C.

Hepatitis-A causes a short-term liver infection. Hepatitis-B and hepatitis-C cause much more serious, long-lasting liver problems

Both can purpose very bad liver disease, like cirrhosis, and death. They are more probably than hepatitis A to be spread by having sex.

Human papillomavirus (HPV)

There are about 40 different types of HPV that can be spread through sex and affect the anus and genitals. Examples of diseases that HPV can reason include:

  1. Genital warts
  2. Cancers of the penis, vagina, anal, mouth, or throat
  3. Cervical cancer (over 70% of cervical cancers – 7 cases out of each and every 10 – are brought about through HPV)

Herpes simplex virus

The herpes simplex virus (HSV) causes genital herpes. Genital herpes can cause painful blisters on the genitals and anus. Herpes can also cause sores in the mouth. There is no cure for herpes.

STDs Caused by Bacteria:

Chlamydia

Chlamydia is one of the most frequent STD in the world. It was caused by bacteria. About 30% of the world population get chlamydia infection every year.

If chlamydia is not treated, it can cause a serious problem. Like diseases of the genitals and eyes. It can even reason blindness. It can also purpose permanent damage to a woman reproductive system if it is no longer treated.

Gonorrhea

It can infect the genitals, mouth, throat, rectum, and eyes. In bad cases, it can spread via the blood to infect the body’s joints. In the worst cases, it can spread through the blood and infect the heart (causing endocarditis, and contamination of the heart’s valves) or the spinal wire inflicting meningitis.

Syphilis

Syphilis can cause many serious problems if it is not treated. It makes a person much more likely to get HIV because it causes sores on the genitals that make it easier for HIV (and other STDs) to get spread. After a few years, if people with syphilis do not get treated, they can have serious problems with them in their body.Eventually – without treatment – syphilis infects the brain and causes death.

STDs Caused by parasites:

Trichomoniasis:

Trichomoniasis a germ causing a benign infection known as trichomoniasis. It is the treatable infection which is cured with a simple course of antibiotics. The symptoms it causes are common STD symptoms, namely an abnormal discharge from the genitals and pain when urinating or when having sex.

Symptoms of emergency STD:

  1. Chest pain
  2. Severe pain
  3. Uncontrolled bleeding
  4. Persistent diarrhea/vomiting
  5. Vomiting/coughing blood
  6. Shortness of breath
  7. Sudden dizziness, fainting, weakness or mental status changes

 Protection before STD:

causes of HIV

Effective STD prevention starts before sexual activity occurs. Here are some steps you can take to decrease your STD danger before having sex:

  1. Avoid sex when under the influence of drugs or alcohol.
  2. Get tested, along with your partners, before having sex.
  3. Limit our number of sexual partners.
  4. Talk honestly with potential partners about both of your sexual histories.
  5. Get vaccinated against the hepatitis B (HBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV)

Having a conversation about sexual fitness with your associate is key, however not every person with STDs knows they’re infected. That’s why it’s so essential to get tested before you have sex with a new partner.

Prevention of STD

The only way for a person to be positive they will not get an STD is for that person not to have sex. This includes sex of any kind.

There are some things that a person can do to make it less likely to get an STI:

  1. Practice safer sex. Use condoms and different types of birth control
  2. Stay with one sexual partner who has tested negative for STDs
  3. Do not have sex with anyone until you are each tested for STDs
  4. Get the vaccines for HPV, hepatitis A, and hepatitis B

Diagnosis

If your sexual records and modern signs and symptoms recommend that you have an STI, laboratory assessments can discover the purpose and realize co-infections you may have contracted.

  1. Urine samples.Some STIs can be confirmed with a urine sample.
  2. Blood tests.It can confirm the diagnosis of HIV or later stages of syphilis.
  3. Fluid samples.If you have active genital sores, testing fluid and samples from the sores may be done to diagnose the type of infection. Laboratory tests of material from a genital sore or discharge are used to diagnose some STIs.

Screening

Blood TestTesting for a disease in anyone who would not have symptoms is called screening. Most of the time, STD screening is not a routine part of health care, however, there are exceptions:

  1. The STI screening test is suggested  for everyone who has ages 13 to 64 is a saliva or blood test for HIV,
  2. Pregnant women. Screening for HIV, chlamydia, hepatitis-B, and syphilis commonly take place at the first prenatal visit for all pregnant women. Hepatitis C and gonorrhea screening checks are advocated at least once at some point of pregnancy a for a female at high danger of these infections.
  3. Women age 21 and older. The Pap test displays for cervical abnormalities, consisting of precancerous changes, inflammation, and cancer, which is often induced by certain lines of human papillomavirus (HPV). Experts suggest that beginning at age 21, women should have a Pap check at least each and every three years. After age 30, women are recommended to have an HPV DNA test and a Pap test every 5 years or a Pap check every three years.
  4. Women under age 25 who are sexually active. All sexually energetic women below age 25 must be tested for chlamydia infection. The chlamydia test makes use of a pattern of urine or vaginal fluid you can acquire yourself. Some specialists suggest repeating the chlamydia test three months after you’ve had an effective test and been treated.
  5. Men who have sex with men. Compared with different groups, men who have sex with men run a greater chance of acquiring STIs. Many public health organizations suggest annual or more common STI screening for these men. Regular checks for HIV, syphilis, chlamydia and gonorrhea are particularly important.
  6. People with HIV. People with HIV should also be screened for Hepatitis C.If you have HIV, it dramatically raises your threat of catching other STIs. Experts suggest immediate checking out for chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhea, herpes and after being identified with HIV. Women with HIV may improve aggressive cervical cancer, so they have a Pap test within a year of being recognized with HIV, and then again six months later.
  7. People who have a new partner. Before having vaginal or anal intercourse with new partners, be sure that you’ve got each been examined for STIs. Keep in thinking that Human Papillomavirus (HPV) screening isn’t reachable for men. No exact screening test exists for genital herpes for both sex, so you may not be conscious you’re infected till you have symptoms.

Do you have questions after reading this article? Please let us know! Leave a comment below, we would love to give you some answers! For the best Healthcare Facilitator Services Contact the number below.

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switch-on

Erectile Dysfunction – Treatment

What are the Treatments for Erectile Dysfunction?

 Lifestyle Changes

Often men with erectile dysfunction are able to improve sexual function by making a few lifestyle changes. Stopping smoking, losing weight, and exercising regularly can help by improving blood flow.

Oral Drugs

While popularized in the media erectile dysfunction drug are available, Consult your Doctor before taking any drug.

Injections

There are also injectable drugs for erectile dysfunction. Some men sustain stronger erections by injecting these medications directly into the penis. These drugs work by widening the blood vessels, causing the penis to become engorged with blood. Another option is a medicated pellet that is inserted into the urethra and can trigger an erection within 10 minutes. Patients should discuss the use of these injections in detail with their doctor before use.

Vacuum Devices (Pumps)

Erectile Dysfunction – Treatment

Vacuum devices for erectile dysfunction, also called pumps, offer an alternative to medication. To use a pump, the penis is placed inside a cylinder. Then the pump draws air out of the cylinder to create a partial vacuum around the penis causing it to fill with blood, leading to an erection. An elastic band worn around the base of the penis is used to maintain the erection during intercourse. Individuals should discuss the use of this device, and especially the elastic band use to avoid potential penile damage.

Surgery

erectile dysfunction

If erectile dysfunction is caused by a blockage in an artery leading to the penis, surgery can be used to restore blood flow. Optimal candidates are typically younger men whose blockage stems from an injury to the crotch or pelvis. The surgery is not recommended for older men with widespread narrowing of the arteries throughout their bodies.

Implants

erectile-dysfunction-s20-penile-implant

For those men with persistent erectile dysfunction, a penile implant can restore sexual function. An inflatable implant uses two cylinders that are surgically placed inside the penis. When an erection is desired, the man uses a pump to fill the cylinders with pressurized fluid. Alternatively, a malleable implant with surgically implanted rods can be used to bolster erections.

Psychotherapy

Counselling

Psychotherapy can be beneficial for men with erectile dysfunction even when erectile dysfunction has a known physical cause. The therapist can instruct the man and his partner in techniques to reduce performance anxiety and improve intimacy. Therapy can also help couples adjust to the use of vacuum devices and implants.

Alternative Therapies

So many Alternative Therapies are available medicine, that is outside the mainstream of western medicine.Ayurveda is one such Alternative therapy – A life science is not just a medical system but a life science which aims not only treating diseases but also to promote a healthy life style and to prevent diseases.

Buyer Beware

There are dozens of “dietary supplements” that claim to treat erectile dysfunction, but the Drug authorities warns on the efficacy and the side effects of those supplements. One investigation discovered that supplements for erectile dysfunction can often contain prescription drugs not listed on the label, including the active ingredient in Viagra. These can put the man at risk for dangerous drug interactions.

Reducing Your Risk of Erectile Dysfunction

To reduce your risk of erectile dysfunction, exercise and maintain a healthy weight, stop smoking, avoid alcohol and substance abuse, and keep your diabetes under control, if you have it.

Discussing Erectile Dysfunction With Your Partner

It’s natural to feel angry or embarrassed when confronted with erectile dysfunction. Remember too that your partner is also affected. Talking openly about erectile dysfunction with your partner will help them understand the diagnosis and treatment options (and will reassure your partner that you haven’t lost interest).

Do you have questions after reading this article? Please let us know! Leave a comment below, we would love to give you some answers!

Erectile Dysfunction – Causes

What Is Erectile Dysfunction (ED)?

Erectile dysfunction (ED) treatment in Chennai

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is when a man has persistent problems achieving and/or sustaining an erection. Erectile dysfunction can make sexual intercourse impossible without treatment.

Does Erectile Dysfunction Mean Poor Libido?

Erectile dysfunction refers specifically to problems achieving or maintaining an erection.  Whereas the poor libido is the problem with ejaculation. Men with erectile dysfunction can have a healthy libido, but their bodies fail to respond in the sexual encounter by producing an erection. Usually there is a physical basis for the problem.

Is there a relationship between low Testosterone (Low T) and Erectile Dysfunction?

Erectile Dysfunction

While low T isn’t the only cause of erectile dysfunction, the two do seem to be connected. However, the connection between low testosterone and erectile dysfunction is complicated. Researchers believe two are connected because they both seem to coincide as a man ages. However, some men with low testosterone continue to produce healthy erections.

What are the Symptoms of Erectile Dysfunction?

Symptoms

Symptoms of erectile dysfunction include

  • erections that are too soft for sexual intercourse
  • erections that last only briefly
  • Inability to achieve erections.

Men who cannot have or maintain an erection at least 75% of the time that they attempt sex are considered to have erectile dysfunction.

Who Gets Erectile Dysfunction?

Symptoms of Erectile Dysfunction

Sexual dysfunction is more common as men age. According to the Massachusetts Male Aging Study, about 40% of men experience some degree of inability to have or maintain an erection at age 40 compared with 70% of men at age 70. And the percentage of men with erectile dysfunction increases from 5% to 15% as age increases from 40 to 70 years. erectile dysfunction can be treated at any age.

What is the Behind Erectile Dysfunction?

erectile-dysfunction-s5-corpoa-cavernosaErection occurs when blood fills two chambers corpora cavernosa in the penis . This causes the penis to expand and stiffen. Its like when the balloon is filled with water. The process is triggered by nerve impulses from the brain and genital area. Anything that interferes with these impulses or restricts blood flow to the penis can result in erectile dysfunction.

What Causes Erectile Dysfunction?

Diseases

erectile Dysfunction Causes and Symptoms

The following four diseases can lead to erectile dysfunction by interfering with blood flow or nerve impulses throughout the body.

  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries)
  • Kidney disease
  • Multiple sclerosis

In addition to that there is always a link between diabetes and erectile dysfunction . Approximately half of the men with diabetes experience erectile dysfunction. But, good blood sugar control can minimize this risk.

Lifestyle Choices

Avoid smoke

Lifestyle choices, such as smoking, alcohol abuse, and obesity can impair blood circulation and lead to erectile dysfunction.

Smoking, excessive drinking, and drug abuse may damage the blood vessels and reduce blood flow to the penis

Smokers have almost twice the risk of erectile dysfunction compared with nonsmokers.

Being overweight and getting too little exercise also contribute to erectile dysfunction. Men who exercise regularly have a lower risk of erectile dysfunction.

Surgery

 

Surgical Image

Surgical or radiation treatments for prostate cancer, bladder cancer, or prostate enlargement (BPH) can sometimes damage nerves and blood vessels near the penis.

Medications

medication

medications can cause or contribute to erectile dysfunction, including certain blood pressure drugs, antidepressants, and tranquilizers. Men with erectile dysfunction should talk with their doctor before taking any medications.

How Erectile Dysfunction Diagnosed?

Physical Tests

Physical Test

A complete physical exam is done to detect poor circulation or nerve trouble. The physician will look for abnormalities of the genital area that could cause problems with erections.

Lab Tests

Lab TestsMany lab tests can be helpful in diagnosing male sexual problems. Measuring testosterone levels can determine whether there is a hormonal imbalance, which is often linked to decreased desire.

These tests may reveal underlying medical causes of ED:

  • Blood cell counts
  • Cholesterol levels
  • Blood sugar levels
  • Liver function tests

Is Erectile Dysfunction a Sign of Heart Disease?

Sign of heart disease

Yes ,Erectile dysfunction could  be a warning sign of serious underlying disease. Research has found that erectile dysfunction is a strong predictor of heart attack, stroke, and even death from cardiovascular disease. All men with erectile dysfunction should be evaluated for cardiovascular disease.

In our Next Article we shall see the treatment options available for Erectile Dysfunction. 

Do you have questions after reading this article? Please let us know! Leave a comment below, we would love to give you some answers!

what is pep

Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP)

Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) means taking antiretroviral medicines (ART) after being potentially exposed to HIV to prevent becoming infected.

Post-exposure prophylaxis, or PEP, is another name for emergency HIV treatment. PEP is not a cure for HIV, it is a form of HIV prevention. It is a short course of antiretroviral drugs that stops exposure to HIV from becoming a life-long infection.

PEP should be started within 72 hours after a recent possible exposure to HIV. If you think you’vepost exposure prophylaxis (PEP)

Recently been exposed to HIV during sex or unprotected Sex.

Causes of HIV

Through sharing needles and works to prepare drugs

Causes of HIV

If sexually assaulted seek urgent medical help.

 

Relief from stress

Health care workers exposed to HIV at Work.

If you think that you have been exposed to HIV visit a healthcare clinic, doctor, pharmacy or contact us immediately.

Not everyone is given PEP and it is not available everywhere. A healthcare professional will advise you if they think you should take PEP.

PEP and HIV testing

HIV TESTING

It’s normal to feel anxious about being infected with HIV.Test for HIV in the following duration after exposure.

  • If you took PEP – get tested 3 and 6 months after potential exposure.
  • If you didn’t take PEP – get tested 3 months after potential exposure

Emotional support, advice and counselling

CounsellingGetting the right support is important before, during and after taking PEP. It can help address any concerns or fears that you might have. Attend follow-up visits with your healthcare team regularly.

PEP must not be used as a frequent way to prevent HIV infection. Use condoms and safer sex practises to prevent sexual transmission of HIV.

When Should you start PEP?

Start PepPEP must be started within 72 hours after a possible exposure. The sooner you start PEP, the better; every hour counts.

Starting PEP as soon as possible after a potential HIV exposure is important. Research has shown that PEP has little or no effect in preventing HIV infection if it is started later than 72 hours after HIV exposure.

How long Should PEP is Prescribed?

PEP drugs to be taken once or twice daily for 28 days.

How effective is PEP Therapy?

PEP is effective in preventing HIV when administered correctly, but not 100%.

Pep Therapy

If you think that you have been exposed to HIV visit a healthcare clinic, doctor, pharmacy or contact us immediately.

Do you have questions after reading this article? Please let us know! Leave a comment below, we would love to give you some answers!

 

 

Facts About Male Fertility – Tests -3

In this article lets discuss about the tests to determine the cause of infertility. In some cases, a cause is never identified.
Diagnosing male infertility problems usually involves:

General physical examination and medical history.

This includes examining your genitals and asking questions about any inherited conditions, chronic health problems, illnesses, injuries or surgeries that could affect fertility. Your doctor might also ask about your sexual habits and about your sexual development during puberty.

Semen analysis

You can provide a semen sample by masturbating and ejaculating into a special container at the doctor’s office or by using a special condom to collect semen during intercourse.

Your semen is then sent to a laboratory to measure the number of sperm present and look for any abnormalities in the shape (morphology) and movement (motility) of the sperm. The lab will also check your semen for signs of problems such as infections.

Often sperm counts fluctuate significantly from one specimen to the next. In most cases, several semen analysis tests are done over a period of time to ensure accurate results. If your sperm analysis is normal, your doctor will likely recommend thorough testing of your female partner before conducting any more male infertility tests.
Your doctor might recommend additional tests to help identify the cause of your infertility.

Scrotal ultrasound.

Scrotal ultrasoundThis test uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images inside your body. A scrotal ultrasound can help your doctor see if there is a varicocele or other problems in the testicles and supporting structures.

Hormone testing.

Hormone Testing

Hormones produced by the pituitary gland, hypothalamus and testicles play a key role in sexual development and sperm production. Abnormalities in other hormonal or organ systems might also contribute to infertility. A blood test measures the level of testosterone and other hormones.

Post-ejaculation urinalysis.

Post-ejaculation urinalysisSperm in your urine can indicate your sperm are traveling backward into the bladder instead of out your penis during ejaculation (retrograde ejaculation).
Genetic tests.

When sperm concentration is extremely low, there could be a genetic cause. A blood test can reveal whether there are subtle changes in the Y chromosome — signs of a genetic abnormality. Genetic testing might be ordered to diagnose various congenital or inherited syndromes.

Testicular biopsy.

Testicular biopsy

This test involves removing samples from the testicle with a needle. If the results of the testicular biopsy show that sperm production is normal your problem is likely caused by a blockage or another problem with sperm transport.
However, this test is not commonly used to diagnose the cause of infertility.

Specialized sperm function tests. A number of tests can be used to check how well your sperm survive after ejaculation, how well they can penetrate an egg, and whether there’s any problem attaching to the egg. Generally, these tests are rarely performed and often do not significantly change recommendations for treatment.

Transrectal ultrasound.

Transrectal ultrasound

A small, lubricated wand is inserted into your rectum. It allows your doctor to check your prostate, and look for blockages of the tubes that carry semen (ejaculatory ducts and seminal vesicles).

Let us see the Diagnosis and Treatment for infertility and in subsequent articles.

Do you have questions after reading this article? Please let us know! Leave a comment below, we would love to give you some answers!