Know About Varicocele and Infertility

A varicocele is an enlargement of the veins inside the loose bag of skin that holds your testicles (scrotum). A varicocele is similar to a varicose vein you may see in your leg.

Varicoceles is one of the cause of low sperm production and reduced sperm quality, which can be a reason for infertility. However, not all varicoceles have an effect on sperm production. Varicoceles can also be a reason for testicles to fail to expand or shrink.

Most varicoceles develop over time. Fortunately, most varicoceles are easy to diagnose and many may not need treatment. If a varicocele causes symptoms, it can be repaired surgically.

What are the Symptoms of Varicocele?

A varicocele often produces no signs or symptoms. Rarely, it may cause pain. The pain may:


With time, varicoceles may expand and turn out to be more noticeable. A varicocele has been described as looking like a “bag of worms.” The condition may cause a swollen testicle, almost on the left side.

When to see a doctor ?

Because a varicocele usually causes no symptoms, it usually requires no treatment. Varicoceles may be found when a fertility evaluation or a physical exam.

However, if you encounter pain or swelling in your scrotum, find out a mass on your scrotum, notice that your testicles are different sizes, or develop a varicocele in your youth, or you are having issues with fertility, contact your doctor. A number of conditions can reason for a scrotal mass or testicular pain, some of which require immediate treatment.

What are the Causes of Varicocele ?

To know about the cause of Varicocele we should know about Male reproductive system. Your spermatic cord transports blood to and from your testicles. It’s not certain what causes varicoceles.


However, many experts trust a varicocele develops when the valves inside the veins in the cord stop your blood from flowing properly. The resulting backup causes the veins to widen (dilate). This would possibly cause harm to the testicle and result in worsened fertility.

Varicoceles often form during puberty. Varicoceles generally occur on the left side, most likely due to the fact of the position of the left testicular vein.

What are the Risk factors Varicocele ?

There do not appear to be any massive risk factors for developing a varicocele. But there are major Complications arise of Varicocele.

A varicocele may cause:

Shrinkage of the affected testicle (atrophy).

The bulk of the testicle consists of sperm-producing tubules. When damaged, as from varicocele, the testicle shrinks and softens. It’s not clear what reasons the testicle to shrink, however the malfunctioning valves allow blood to pool in the veins, which can result in elevated pressure in the veins and may be exposed to toxins in the blood that might cause testicular damage.


  • Testicles Maintain low temperature than the body to maintain the quality of Sperm Produced.
  • Varicoceles increases the temperature of the testicle very high, affecting sperm formation, movement (motility) and function.

How is Varicocele Diagnosed ?

Your doctor will conduct a physical exam, which may reveal a non tender mass above your testicle that feels like a bag of worms. If it is big enough, your doctor will be able to feel it.

If you have a smaller varicocele, your doctor may ask you to stand, take a deep breath and hold it while you bear down (Valsalva maneuver). This helps your doctor detect abnormal enlargement of the veins.

If the physical exam is inconclusive, your doctor may order a scrotal ultrasound. This test, which makes use of high-frequency sound waves to create precise image’s of structures inside your body, may be used to make sure there is not any other reason for your symptoms. In some cases, further imaging might be recommended to rule out other reasons for the varicocele, such as a tumor compressing the spermatic vein.

Why Varicocele should be treated ?

Infertility is a major problem because of Varicocele. Major Cases of Male Infertility issue is due to Varicocele. Some men with varicoceles are capable to father a child without any treatment. However, if your varicocele


you may want to undergo varicocele repair.

The reason of surgical operation is to seal off the affected vein to redirect the blood flow into normal veins. In cases of male infertility, treatment of a varicocele might improve or treat the infertility or enhance the quality of sperm if techniques such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) are to be used.

Clear indications to restore a varicocele in adolescence include progressive testicular atrophy, pain or abnormal semen analysis results. Although cure of a varicocele usually improves sperm characteristics, it is not clear if an untreated varicocele leads to worsening of sperm quality over time.

What are the Treatment Options For Varicocele?

Varicoceles can be repaired by following methods

  • Open surgery. This Procedure can be is accomplished on an outpatient basis, on general or local anesthetic. Commonly, your doctor will approach the vein thru your groin (inguinal or subinguinal), however it is also possible to make an incision in your abdomen or below your groin.
  • Advances in varicocele repair have led to a reduction of post-surgical complications. One development is the use of the surgical microscope, which allows the doctor to see the treatment area during surgery. Another is the use of Doppler ultrasound, which helps guide the procedure.
  • Laparoscopic surgery. Your doctor makes a small incision in your abdomen and passes a tiny instrument through the incision to see and to repair the varicocele. This technique requires general anesthesia.
  • Percutaneous embolization. A radiologist inserts a tube into a vein in your groin or neck via which instruments can be passed. Viewing your enlarged veins on a monitor, the doctor releases coils or a solution that causes scarring to create a blockage in the testicular veins, which interrupts the blood flow and repairs the varicocele. This method is not as widely used as surgery.

After the Procedures ?

You may be able to return to normal, nonstrenuous things to do after two days. As long as you are not uncomfortable, you may return to greater strenuous activity, such as exercising, after two weeks.

Pain from this procedure generally is moderate however may continue for various days or weeks. Your doctor may prescribe NSAID’s for a limited period after surgery.

Your doctor may advise you not to have intercourse for a period of time. Most often, it will take several months after surgical procedure before improvements in sperm quality can be seen with a semen analysis. This is because it takes about three months for new sperm to develop.

Open surgical operation using a microscope and subinguinal method (microsurgical subinguinal varicocelectomy) has the best success rates when compared with other surgical methods.

Varicocele repair may have few risks, which would possibly include:


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IVF Cycle

IVF Process Start to Finish

This Article will briefly tell you the Steps involve for In vitro Fertilization. Every case is unique, and it is impossible to predict exactly how your cycle will go, we can sketch out a basic timeline and tell you about the most important landmarks along the way. This is just a general steps in the path of in-vitro fertilization.  The treatment plan should be customized for every individual by the treating doctor during consultation.

Counselling For HIV Patients

A brief introduction to IVF

In Vitro Fertilization in latin that means “Fertilization in the glass.” Infertility is a highly personal and emotional subject and it’s a medical problem that is growing. Because of the personalized nature of infertility—the inability to conceive or take a baby to term—there is no one rule as to when to seek treatment but there are guidelines including:

  • Couples over the age of 35 and six months of unprotected intercourse with no pregnancy;
  • Couples under the age of 30 with one year of unprotected intercourse with no pregnancy,
  • Known medical or health issues that could impact natural conception (i.e., cancer, diabetes, sterilization procedures, etc.) It’s important to note, however, that every couple is different and a consultation might in order much sooner. If nothing else than to provide peace of mind.

IVF process actually starts weeks earlier. IVF is not a single treatment but a series of procedures. An average IVF cycle takes about 6 to 8 weeks from consultation to transfer, but depending on the specific circumstances of each the path is similar for every patient. What varies is how your body responds at each stage. The stages can be as below.

  • Baseline ultrasound
  • Initiation of hormonal pills as per requirements
  • Ovarian stimulation and follicular monitoring
  • Trigger shot for maturation, rupture of follicle and oocyte retrieval
  • Fertilization and embryo formation
  • Embryo transfer (Fresh or Frozen)
  • Pregnancy test (15 days after transfer)
  • Early antenatal ultrasound (4-5 weeks gestation)


Baseline ultrasound

Pretreatment preparation for IVF: Comprehensive lab tests give a clearer picture of your fertility, so that your fertility experts can offer you an individualized IVF protocol. Common pre-IVF testing includes:

  • A blood panel
  • Ultrasounds
  • Infectious disease screening
  • Uterine evaluation
  • Male fertility testing, including a sperm analysis

Transvaginal ultrasound scan is done to examine their ovaries and ovarian reserve. Uterine evaluation is done for endometrial thickness and Fallopian tube.


In some cases, patients may develop uterine fibroids, infections of the fallopian tubes or ovarian cysts or endometrium’s. If any ovarian pathology is detected, the IVF treatment would be carried out after the cysts are resolved by Medical or surgical management wo.  If the baseline ultrasound is normal, we will begin injections for ovarian stimulation.

Initiation of hormonal pills as per requirements

Some patients are advised hormonal medications at the start of their IVF cycle. The reasons are listed as follows

  • This reduces the use of GnRH-agonists
  • This reduces the chances of developing ovarian cysts before IVF
  • This is associated with better ovarian response during ovarian stimulation and finally more number of eggs are retrieved
  • This also assists in synchronous follicle growth, which means all follicles are of similar size which eventually leads to better retrieval rates when ovum or egg pick up is done.

Ovarian stimulation

The stimulatory medication prescribed for a patient is individualized. The medicines are injected subcutaneously that is  just below the surface of the skin.

It may include all or any combination or one of the following medications:


  • Fertility medications (for about two weeks): Oral fertility medications like Clomid and/or injectable follicle stimulation hormones (Follistim and Gonal-F) are used to stimulate the follicles in your ovaries to mature more eggs than they typically would in a normal cycle. The goal is to produce at least 4 eggs with the use of fertility medication.
  • Monitoring visits (during the fertility medication phase): Ultrasounds and blood tests are used during this time to keep a close eye on the development of your follicles and eggs. This is the most time-consuming part of the IVF process, requiring an average 5-7 office visits.

Trigger shot for maturation and oocyte retrieval

Trigger shot for maturation : After about 10-12 days of fertility medication, once monitoring shows that your follicles have grown to an appropriate size, it is time to trigger the final maturation of the eggs with hCG and schedule the ultrasound egg retrieval 36 hours later.

Facts about Female Fertility

  • Oocyte or Egg retrieval: This is a day procedure performed in the clinic under sedation. There is minimal risk, but you will want to take the day off work and arrange for someone to pick you up. If you are going through IVF with a partner who will be providing a semen specimen, it will be collected on the same day as your egg retrieval or the sperm could be frozen before.

Fertilization and Blastocyst Culture

  • Egg and sperm are combined in the lab: If all goes well, fertilization occurs and embryos are created. There are several options that can be used at this stage to try to increase the chances of a successful pregnancy.
  • Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a good option when male infertility is a factor. In this procedure a single healthy sperm is injected directly into an egg.

  • Assisted hatching is a procedure where a tiny hole is made in an embryo’s outer membrane (the zona pellucida) to try to increase the rate of implantation after transfer.
  • Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) or diagnosis (PGD) can help to ensure that only healthy embryos are transferred. As genetic abnormality is a leading cause of miscarriage, this testing is often helpful in cases of recurrent pregnancy loss.

Embryo transfer-fresh or frozen

  • Within 3-6 days after fertilization, embryos are evaluated for transfer: Daily monitoring helps experts decide which embryos have the best chance of surviving transfer, and IVF Lab Daily Reports keep you informed of their progress.

  • Embryo or blastocyst transfer: Approximately 3 days after fertilization, embryos are ready for transfer, but some patients prefer to wait a few days until they have reached the blastocyst stage (generally 5 days after fertilization). The embryo or blastocyst is instilled into the uterus via a thin, flexible plastic tube, which is gently passed through the opening in the cervix leading to the interior of the uterus. You will not need sedation for this procedure. It is generally painless but some women may experience mild cramping. You can watch the transfer as it happens with ultrasound technology.

After IVF , Progesterone support

Progesterone is a hormone which helps to support the uterine lining during pregnancy and helps a healthy pregnancy develop in the early stages. Progesterone supplementation is known to improve the chance of success of IVF.

For this reason, we prescribe progesterone injections around the time the embryo transfer is planned and after the transfer patients will take it either by injection and/or orally or by the vaginal route .

Progesterone is the same hormone the ovaries produce and is used in a dose that is not excessive. It is usually continued at least until the pregnancy test and longer once the patient is confirmed to be pregnant , for the first three months .

After the transfer, you will take a progesterone supplement to help support the uterine lining and encourage implantation.


  • Pregnancy test #1: Approximately 12 days after the embryo/blastocyst transfer, you will take your first pregnancy test in the clinic.

  • Pregnancy test #2: This repeat test is done within one week of the first positive test. If it is positive, we will schedule you for an ultrasound after 2-3 weeks, and then you can transfer your care to an OB GYN

If the ultrasound confirms a normal pregnancy, Oral as well as vaginal medications to support the pregnancy and those recommended in early pregnancy. Since these pregnancies are precious, The patients are asked to follow up  the antenatal period and look after their pregnancy carefully till term.

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varicose veins

Varicose Veins

Varicose veins are twisted, enlarged veins. Any superficial vein may also emerge as varicosed, however the veins most usually affected are those in your legs. That’s because standing and on foot upright increases the pressure in the veins of your lower body.

Spider veinsFor many people, varicose veins and spider veins — a common, mild variation of varicose veins — are simply a cosmetic concern. For other people, varicose veins can cause aching pain and discomfort. Sometimes varicose veins lead to more-serious problems.

Treatment will have self-care measures or procedures through your doctor to shut or remove veins.


Varicose veins may not reason any pain. Signs you might have varicose veins include:

  • Veins that are dark purple or blue in color
  • Veins that are twisted and bulging; they are often like cords on your legs

varicose vein

When painful signs and symptoms and occur, they might include:

  • An achy or heavy feeling in your legs
  • Burning, throbbing, muscle cramping and swelling in your lower legs
  • Worsened pain after sitting or standing for a long time
  • Itching near one or more of your veins
  • Skin discoloration around a varicose vein

Spider veins are similar to varicose veins, however they’re smaller. They are observed closer to the skin’s surface and are usually red or blue. This appear on the legs, but can also be seen on the face. They vary in size and   look like a spider’s web.

When to see a doctor

Self-care — such as exercise, elevating your legs or wearing compression stockings — can help you ease the pain of varicose veins and might prevent them from getting worse. But if you are concerned about how your veins look and feel and self-care measures have not stopped your situation from getting worse, see your doctor.



Weak or broken valves can lead to varicose veins. Arteries carry blood from your heart to the rest of your tissues, and veins return blood from the rest of your body to your heart, so the blood can be recirculated. To return blood to your heart, the veins in your legs need to work in opposition to gravity.

Muscle contractions in your   legs act as pumps, and elastic vein walls makes blood return to your heart. Tiny valves in your veins open as blood flows towards your heart then shut to stop blood from flowing backward. If these valves are weak or damaged, blood can waft backward and pool in the vein, making the veins to stretch or twist.

Risk factors

These factors increase your risk of developing varicose veins:

  • Age. The risk of varicose veins increases with age. Aging expedite wear and tear on the valves in your veins that regulates blood flow. Eventually, that wear causes the valves to permit some blood to flow return into your veins where it collects instead of flowing up to your heart.
  • Sex. Women are more likely to develop the condition. Hormonal changes during pregnancy, premenstruation or menopause might be a factor because female hormones have a tendency to loosen up vein walls. Hormone treatments, such as birth control pills, might also increase your chance of varicose veins.


  • Pregnancy. During pregnancy, the extent of blood in your body increases. This change helps the developing fetus, however it also can produce an   side effect — enlarged veins in your legs. Hormonal changes throughout pregnancy may also play a role.
  • Family history. If other family members had varicose veins, there is a higher chance you will too.
  • Obesity. Being obese puts more stress on your veins.
  • Standing or sitting for long duration of time. Your blood doesn’t flow as properly if you are in the same role for long periods.

Complications of varicose veins, even though rare, can include:

  • Ulcers. Painful ulcers may form on the skin close to varicose veins, specially near the ankles. A discolored spot on the skin normally begins before an ulcer forms. See your doctor immediately if you suspect you have developed an ulcer.
  • Blood clots. Occasionally, veins deep within the legs gets enlarged. In such cases, the affected leg might become painful and swell. Any chronic pain in the leg   or swelling warrants medical attention because it can also indicate a blood clot — a condition known medically as thrombophlebitis.
  • Bleeding. Occasionally, veins very close to the pores and skin may also burst. This normally causes only minor bleeding. But any bleeding requires medical attention.


There’s no way to completely prevent varicose veins. But improving your circulation and muscle tone might reduce your risk of growing varicose veins or getting more ones. The same measures you can take to treat the pain from varicose veins at home can help prevent varicose veins, including:

  • Exercising
  • Watching your weight
  • Eating a high-fiber, low-salt diet
  • Avoiding high heels and tight hosiery
  • Elevating your legs
  • Changing your sitting or standing position regularly


To diagnose varicose veins, your medical doctor will do a physical exam, including looking at your legs while you are standing to take a look at for swelling. Your doctor may additionally also ask you to describe any pain and aching in your legs.

You may need an ultrasound test to see if the valves in your veins are functioning generally or if there is any evidence of a blood clot. In this noninvasive test, a technician runs a small hand held gadget (transducer), about the size of a bar of soap, against your pores and skin over the region of your body being examined. The transducer transmits pics of the veins in your legs to a monitor, so a technician and your doctor can see them.


Fortunately, treatment commonly would not mean a hospital stay or a long, uncomfortable recovery. Thanks to   invasive procedures, varicose veins can normally be treated on an outpatient basis.

varicose veins

Ask your health practitioner if insurance plan will cowl any of the fee of your treatment. If accomplished for merely beauty reasons, you will likely have to pay for the therapy of varicose veins yourself.


Self-care — such as exercising, loosing weight, not wearing tight clothes, elevating your legs, and avoiding long durations of standing or sitting — can ease pain and stop varicose veins from getting worse.

Compression stockings

Wearing compression stockings all day is often the first approach to try before shifting on to other treatments. They steadily squeeze your legs, helping veins and leg muscles pass blood more efficiently. The quantity of compression varies through type and brand.


You can buy compression stockings at most pharmacies and medical supply stores. Prescription-strength stockings also are available, and are possibly blanketed with the aid of insurance if your varicose veins are causing symptoms.

Additional treatments for more-severe varicose veins

If you do not respond to self-care or compression stockings, or if your condition is more severe, your doctor may also recommend one of these varicose vein treatments:

  • In this procedure, your doctor injects small- and medium-sized varicose veins with a solution or foam that scars and closes those veins. In a few weeks, dealt with varicose veins fade.

Although the identical vein might need to be injected more than once, sclerotherapy is effective if  done correctly. Sclerotherapy would not require anesthesia and can be carried out in your doctor’s office.


  • Foam sclerotherapy of large veins. Injection of a large vein with a foam solution is additionally a possible therapy to shut a vein and seal it.
  • Laser treatment. Doctors are using new technology in laser treatments to shut off smaller varicose veins and spider veins. Laser treatment works by way of sending strong bursts of light onto the vein, which makes the vein slowly fade and disappear. No incisions or needles are used.
  • Catheter-assisted methods using radiofrequency or laser energy. In one of these treatments, your doctor inserts a thin tube (catheter) into an enlarged vein and heats the tip of the catheter using radiofrequency or laser energy. As the catheter is pulled out, the heat destroys the vein by causing it to collapse and seal shut. This method is the preferred treatment for large varicose veins.
  • High ligation and vein stripping. This method involves tying off a vein before it joins a deep vein and removing the vein via small incisions. This is an outpatient procedure for most people. Removing the vein may not adversely have an effect on circulation in your leg because veins deeper in the leg take care of the larger volumes of blood.
  • Ambulatory phlebectomy (fluh-BEK-tuh-me). Your doctor removes smaller varicose veins through a sequence of tiny skin punctures. Only the parts of your leg that are being pricked are numbed in this outpatient procedure. Scarring is generally minimal.
  • Endoscopic vein surgery. You would possibly want this operation only in an advanced case involving leg ulcers if other methods fail. Your doctor uses a thin video camera inserted in your leg to visualize and close varicose veins and then removes the veins thru small incisions. This method is performed on an outpatient basis.
  • Varicose veins that develop during pregnancy commonly improve besides medical cure within three to 12 months after delivery.

Lifestyle and home remedies

There are some self-care measures you can take to reduce the discomfort that varicose veins can cause. These same measures can help prevent or slow the development of varicose veins, as well. They include:

  • Exercise. Get moving. Walking is a wonderful way to encourage blood circulation in your legs. Your doctor can advise an appropriate activity level for you.
  • Watch your weight and your diet. Shedding extra pounds takes unnecessary pressure off your veins. What you eat can help, too. Follow a low-salt food regimen to prevent swelling caused from water retention.
  • Watch what you wear. Avoid high heels. Low-heeled shoes work calf muscle mass more, which is better for your veins. Don’t wear tight garments round your waist, legs or groin because these clothes can reduce blood flow.
  • Elevate your legs. To enhance the circulation in your legs, take several short breaks daily to raise your legs above the level of your heart. For example, lie down with your legs resting on three or 4 pillows.
  • Avoid long durations of sitting or standing. Make a point of changing your position frequently to encourage blood flow.

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Understanding Left Ventricle Assited Device (LVAD)

What is an LVAD?

A left ventricular assist device, or LVAD, is a mechanical pump that is implanted inside a person’s chest to help a weakened heart pump blood.

Unlike a total artificial heart, the LVAD doesn’t replace the heart. It just helps it do its job. This can mean the difference between life and death for a person whose heart needs a rest after open-heart surgery or for people waiting for a heart transplant. LVADs are often called a “bridge to transplant.”

LVADs may also be used as ”destination therapy.” This means it is used long-term in some terminally ill people whose condition makes it impossible for them to get a heart transplant.

The LVAD: An Overview


  • When an LVAD is implanted in a patient waiting for a heart transplant, it’s called Bridge to Transplant. The patient’s LVAD may remain in place for several years until a heart donor becomes available for transplant.
  • If a patient is not eligible for a heart transplant, an LVAD may be implanted as a permanent solution. This is called Destination Therapy and is becoming more and more common as LVAD technology—and the quality of life it offers—continues to improve.
  • An LVAD that is implanted for temporary heart failure is called Bridge to Recovery. In rare circumstances, a heart may recover its strength after being given time to “rest” with the help of an LVAD. In the vast majority of cases, however, advanced heart failure is a permanent and irreversible condition.

What Are the Benefits of an LVAD?

An LVAD restores blood flow to a person whose heart has been weakened by heart disease. This helps relieve some symptoms, such as being constantly tired or short of breath.

In rare cases, it lets the heart recover its normal ability by giving it a chance to rest. It maintains or improves other organs, helps with doing exercise, and lets the person go through cardiac rehabilitation.

LVAD Technology

There are several different LVAD models available today. Each has unique engineering characteristics and different external equipment, but they all serve the same function. Today’s LVADs are quite different from earlier models, which were larger, noisier and less durable, with bulkier power sources.

Lvad Technology

Some newer LVADs are currently undergoing approval in the U.S. Most have already been approved in Europe, where the approval process tends to take less time.

As LVAD technology continues to improve, so does the quality and quantity of life for LVAD patients: today’s LVAD patients. Today’s LVAD patients have at least an 85% one-year survival rate* and can enjoy fulfilling lives and in many cases even return to work. By contrast, advanced heart failure with medical therapy alone is known to have a 25–50% one-year survival rate.


*Because LVAD technology is quite new, longer-term survival rates are not yet available

LVAD Implant Surgery

LVAD implantation is an open-heart surgery that takes from 4 to 6 hours to perform. It is performed through an incision made over your breastbone (sternal incision) or can be done using two smaller incisions on either side of your chest between the ribs. The recovery process following surgery varies from patient to patient. The hospital length of stay can range anywhere from 2 to 4 weeks but may change based on your specific needs. Each hospital follows slightly different procedures, but the information below will give you a general sense of what to expect.

How Life Changes After The Treatment

There’s no doubt that having an LVAD is a big adjustment, both for you and your caregiver, as well as your loved ones. Most people who have an LVAD are able to live at home, move freely, enjoy favorite activities and even return to work or school. Many LVAD patients also find they have more energy than they did before, because more oxygen-rich blood is moving through their bodies.

Lvad After surgery

Below are some of the life changes you can expect when you have an LVAD. For more detailed information and tips for everyday life with your LVAD, visit the Living With LVAD section of this site. Or Visit the Community Forums to connect with other people with LVADs and their caregivers. Knowing you’re not alone can make the transition much easier.


The device cost is around USD 130,000 20,000 and the charges including the surgery will cross more than USD 180,000

The device which is made in India is one third of the price which is USD 40,000.

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Best Treatment for Cancer – Proton Therapy

Annually 9.6 Million individuals die of cancer globally and more than half of them in the age of 30-80 years. Now, Proton therapy is used to treat many different of cancers and is mainly appropriate in situations where treatment options are conventional or restricted radiotherapy poses a peril to the patient.

Cancer is the second leading cause of death, behind heart disease. The most common cause of cancer in men is prostate cancer, but the most common cause of cancer death in men is lung cancer.


In women, the most common cause of cancer is breast cancer, and like men, the most common cause of cancer death is lung cancer.

The clinical advantages of proton therapy in variance to conventional radiation therapy are extensive, with more than 75,000 patients treated worldwide.

Proton Therapy

Proton Beam therapy is one of the major forms of radiation therapy in the world. It uses high-power proton beam for cancer treatment. It gives the targeted treatment and expansion unlike any other radiation therapy.

Conventional radiotherapy spend high energy x-ray for the treatment of cancer and convinced benign tumors. It also destroy the surrounding healthy tissue by delivering the radiation to the healthy tissue over tumor. In comparison, Proton beam delivers a high dosage of radiation particularly to the tumor maximizing the chance of cure and turn minimizing the adverse effects to the enclosing healthy tissue.

proton therapy

In other, a superlative advantage is the proper dose distribution. A low dosage of radiation is emanated at the body surface which is followed by a sharp burst once it destroy the tumor, with negligible radiation travelling away from the target.

Conventional radiation Vs Proton Therapy

Conventional radiation is extremely penetrating and delivers a dose throughout any volume of tissue exposed to radiation. However, majority of the radiation is delivered only 0.5 to 3 cm from the patient’s skin, depending on the energy it absolutely was primarily given. It then slowly loses this energy till it reaches the target. As tumors nearly always situated at a depth, conventional radiation actively interacts with outer healthy cells and transfers only small remaining dose of radiation on the deeper diseased cells.

Conversely, the proton could be a significant and charged particle that in time loses its speed because it interacts with human tissue. It’s simply controlled and delivers its utmost dose at an correct depth, that is set by the quantity of energy it absolutely was given by the cyclotron, and reaches as far 32 cm. The proton is credibly fast once it penetrates the patient’s body and deposits particularly a diminutive dose on its approach. The absorbed dose will increase terribly bit by bit with higher depth and lower speed, speedily rising to a peak once the nucleon is finally stopped. The behavior of the nucleon may be specifically determined. Proton therapy aims to focus on tumors within the body, accurately localize the radiation indefinite quantity and spare the patient’s healthy cells, presenting a way less invasive option to treat cancer.

Proton Beam therapy has reworked the treatment of numerous cancers such as skull base tumors, brain tumors, pediatric cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and lung cancer. In cases where treatment choices restricted and Conventional radiotherapy a dangers to patients. Proton beam therapy should a larger extent, trounced the boundaries of conventional radiotherapy.

How does Proton Therapy works

Exponential energization

Protons are accelerated in a machine called the cyclotron which results in the particles becoming highly energized. Protons carry a charge and mass that is typically higher than photons used in conventional radiology.

Targeted bursts

The beam then enters the treatment room via the gantry. The 360-degree revolving gantry facilitates delivery from any angle; enabling the proton beams to reach the most complex and hard to access tumors.

Peak precision

The protons reach the targeted area and slow down sufficiently to release a burst of energy. State-of-the-art Pencil Beam Scanning delivers the radiation dosage pixel by pixel, ensuring peak precision.

Minimum side effects

In proton therapy, the velocity of the protons is regulated to ensure the burst occurs at the precise site of the tumor, minimizing damage to healthy tissue around it. This results in minimal side effects, faster recovery and a better quality of life.

Benefits of Proton Therapy

  • Little to no radiation behind the tumor
  • Significantly smaller integral dose per treatment
  • Proven credentials in reducing risk of side effects
  • Better quality of life during and after treatment
  • A painless and non-invasive procedure

Proton Prowess ideal for a wide range of Cancers

Brain Tumors

The treatment of brain tumors is a complicated process, as they are located near vital structures – hormonal, sensory and neurological centers – where damage can result in serious adverse effects such as neurocognitive, hormonal & auditory disorders.

Brain Tumor

This is why proton therapy, with revolutionary delivery modes like Pencil Beam Scanning is the clear leader to treat CNS cancers. Proton therapy has globally proven to

  • Reduce the dose of radiation by 60% to surrounding structures such as the hippo campus, cochlea and pituitary.
  • Reduce the incidence of second cancers by 50%.

Skull Base Tumors

Proton therapy is an ideal modality for treating skull base and cervical spine tumors such as chordoma and chondrosarcoma. The dose can be focused in the target, while achieving significant sparing of the brain, brain stem, cervical cord, and optic nerves and chiasm. Proton therapy is recommended for skull base tumors. The benefits on using IMPT are

  • Dose escalation possible with proton therapy, between 70-74 GyRBE
  • 7-year local control for chordoma and chondrosarcoma are 71% and 94% respectively.
  • For cervical spine tumors, 10-year local control rates for chordomas and chondrosarcomas are 54% and 48% respectively

Gastrointestinal Tumors

In conventional radiation there was no effective way to treat hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic disease and carcinoma of the oesophagus as well as surgery.

Gastrointestinal Tumors

Using conventional radiotherapy, there is high risk of damaging the liver, kidney, spinal cord, intestines and lungs. Comparing to conventional radiotherapy, proton therapy offer the following benefits:

  • Reduces side effect
  • Potentially reduces radiation exposure to close organs by 60%

Head & Neck and Eye Tumors

The use of conventional radiotherapy in the case of these delicate tumors is once again associated with adverse effects such as functional disorders of the salivary glands, or in the case of eyes, a worsened quality of vision.Proton Therapy is ideal treatment mode because : Preserves swallowing functions and sense of taste.

Prostate Cancer

Many treatments for prostate cancer often cause long-term side effects, including urinary complications and impotence. With these serious risks in mind, the precision and power of proton therapy is always recommended for prostate cancer. The benefits include:


  • Reduced irradiation of the bladder by 60% thus reducing the risk of incontinence
  • Reduce the incidence of second cancers by 50%.

Thoracic Tumors

In the case of Lung carcinoma, the precise nature of proton therapy allows a higher dose of radiation to be delivered directly to where it needs to be – the tumor. In addition, the treatment time is shortened, and healthy lung tissue is preserved. Proton therapy has emerged superior to conventional radiation in treating Lung Cancer for the following benefit:

Lowers radiation exposure to surrounding structures by 50%

Both standard radiation therapy and proton therapy work on the same principle of damaging cellular DNA. The major advantage of proton therapy treatment over standard radiation therapy, however, is that protons slowly deposit their energy as they travel towards the cancerous tumor and then due to a unique physical characteristic called the Bragg Peak, deposit the majority of the radiation dose directly in the tumor and travel no further through the body. This results in less healthy tissues and organs receiving unnecessary radiation thereby reducing unwanted complications and side effects. Standard radiation therapy utilizes x-rays which deposits the majority of the radiation dose immediately upon entering the body while traveling to the tumor. Unlike protons, after depositing radiation dose in the tumor the x-rays continue traveling through the body until exiting out the other side resulting in the delivery of unnecessary radiation to healthy tissues and organs. Simply put, protons STOP after depositing the radiation dose in the tumor, x-rays do not.

These unique advantages of proton therapy lead to the potential for fewer harmful side effects, more direct impact on the tumor, and increased tumor control.

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