GASTROENTEROLOGY

Colonoscopy
Sigmoidscopic Polypectomy
Gastroscopy/Endoscopy
Capsule Endoscopy
Oesophageal Metal Stenting

Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Endoscopic Branding
Laparoscopy Appendectomy
Foreign Body Removal
Endoscopy

Achalasia Cardia Dilation
Gastroplasty
Laparoscopy Assisted Hemicolectomy
Laparoscopy Cardiomyotomy

Colonoscopy

Colonoscopy is a test that allows your doctor to look at the inner lining of your large intestine camera.gif (rectum and colon). He or she uses a thin, flexible tube called a colonoscope to look at the colon. A colonoscopy helps find ulcers, colon polyps, tumors, and areas of inflammation or bleeding. During a colonoscopy, tissue samples can be collected (biopsy) and abnormal growths can be taken out. Colonoscopy can also be used as a screening test to check for cancer or precancerous growths in the colon or rectum (polyps).

The colonoscope is a thin, flexible tube that ranges from 48 in. (125 cm) to 72 in. (183 cm) long. The colonoscope can be used to look at the whole colon and the lower part of the small intestine.

Sigmoidscopic Polypectomy

The removal of a polyp is called a polypectomy and can be achieved by using a variety of instruments through channels of the endoscope.

If a polyp is found on the left side of your bowel, there is a higher chance of you having polyps on the right side of your bowel. As a flexible sigmoidoscopy does not reach the right side of your bowel, you may be asked to return on another day for a full colonoscopy, if a polyp is found. A colonoscopy allows the entire large bowel to be examined and any further polyps to be removed.

Gastroscopy / Endoscopy

Gastroscopy/Endoscopy – A simple and effective means to assess symptoms such as upper abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, reflux, difficulty swallowing or weight loss, by inserting a small camera through the mouth to get a clear view of the oesophagus, stomach and small intestine.

The procedure starts with a small amount of anaesthetic, allowing you to sleep through the procedure. Then a small camera is inserted through the mouth, displaying images on a video screen – this procedure is far more effective in detecting inflammation, ulcers or early cancer.

Gastroscopy/Endoscopy is also used to treat some condition, in order to prevent the need for invasive surgery. Conditions include gastric polyps that need removing, bleeding lesions and strictures can be stretched. Gastroscopy is also used to obtain biopsies where tumours or infection is suspected.

Capsule Endoscopy

The procedure is useful in examining the complete small intestine. A vitamin pill- sized video capsule is ingested having its own light source and camera. The images are then sent by the video capsule that is travelling through the entire body. The images then can be seen on the waist belt which the patient is wearing having a data recorder. The procedure helps in determining the persistent or recurrent symptoms like anemia bleeding, abdominal pain or diarrhea that cannot be diagnosed with the techniques of x-rays, endoscopy and colonoscopy.

Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Endoscopic Branding

Flexible sigmoidoscopy is a test that a doctor uses to check the inner lining of your rectum and the lower part of your colon.

A sigmoidoscope is a long, flexible tube that’s about half an inch in diameter. It has a tiny light and camera. A doctor uses it to view the lining of the rectum and the lower third of the colon.

Double Balloon Enteroscopy : The procedure is performed for examining small intestine where the earlier techniques are not able to reach. A high resolution video endoscope is used having latex balloons. These balloons are attached at the tips and can be deflated and inflated with air through a system of pressure controlled pump. Deflation or inflation cycles help in advancing more into the small intestine. The procedure is used for Crohn’s disease, gastrointestinal bleeding and unexplained diarrhea.

Laparoscopy Appendectomy

Appendicitis is one of the most common surgical problems. One out of every 2,000 people has an appendectomy sometime during their lifetime. Treatment requires an operation to remove the infected appendix. Traditionally, the appendix is removed through an incision in the right lower abdominal wall.

In most laparoscopic appendectomies, surgeons operate through 3 small incisions (each ¼ to ½ inch) while watching an enlarged image of the patient’s internal organs on a television monitor. In some cases, one of the small openings may be lengthened to complete the procedure.

Foreign Body Removal

Gastrointestinal foreign bodies, especially strings, can often lead to perforation of the intestinal tract and spillage of intestinal contents into the abdomen. This condition quickly leads to inflammation of the abdominal lining (peritonitis) and allows bacterial proliferation and contamination (sepsis), which are both life-threatening complications. While some small foreign bodies will pass, many will become lodged along the gastrointestinal tract and cause discomfort and make your pet sick. Some foreign bodies located in the stomach may be retrieved with the use of an endoscope; however, most require surgical abdominal exploration and removal.

Endoscopy

An endoscopy is a procedure in which your doctor uses specialized instruments to view and operate on the internal organs and vessels of your body. It allows surgeons to view problems within your body without making large incisions.

A surgeon inserts an endoscope through a small cut, or an opening in the body such as the mouth. An endoscope is a flexible tube with an attached camera that allows your doctor to see. Your doctor can use forceps (tongs) and scissors on the endoscope to operate or remove tissue for biopsy.

Achalasia Cardia Dilation

The esophagus is the tube that carries food from the throat to the stomach. Achalasia is a serious condition that affects your esophagus. The lower esophageal sphincter (LES) is a valve that closes off the esophagus from the stomach. If you have achalasia, your LES fails to open up during swallowing, which it’s supposed to do. This leads to a backup of food within your esophagus. This condition can be related to damaged nerves in your esophagus. It can also be due to damage of the LES.

Esophagomyotomy is a type of surgery that can help you if you have achalasia. Your doctor will use a large or small incision to access the sphincter and carefully alter it to allow better flow into the stomach. The great majority of esophagomyotomy procedures are successful.

Achalasia Cardia Dilation

The esophagus is the tube that carries food from the throat to the stomach. Achalasia is a serious condition that affects your esophagus. The lower esophageal sphincter (LES) is a valve that closes off the esophagus from the stomach. If you have achalasia, your LES fails to open up during swallowing, which it’s supposed to do. This leads to a backup of food within your esophagus. This condition can be related to damaged nerves in your esophagus. It can also be due to damage of the LES.

Esophagomyotomy is a type of surgery that can help you if you have achalasia. Your doctor will use a large or small incision to access the sphincter and carefully alter it to allow better flow into the stomach. The great majority of esophagomyotomy procedures are successful.

Gastroplasty

Restrictive gastric operations, such as vertical banded gastroplasty (VGB), serve only to restrict and decrease food intake and do not interfere with the normal digestive process.

In this procedure the upper stomach near the esophagus is stapled vertically to create a small pouch along the inner curve of the stomach. The outlet from the pouch to the rest of the stomach is restricted by a band made of special material. The band delays the emptying of food from the pouch, causing a feeling of fullness.

Laparoscopy Assisted Hemicolectomy

Surgery done with the aid of a laparoscope to remove all or part of the colon through several small incisions made in the wall of the abdomen. A laparoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. It may also have a tool to remove tissue to be checked under a microscope for signs of disease. The laparoscope is inserted through one opening to guide the surgery. Surgical instruments are inserted through the other openings to perform the surgery. When only part of the colon is removed, it is called a partial colectomy.

Laparoscopy Cardiomyotomy

This is an operation for achalasia of the cardia, a condition in which the muscle in the lower oesophagus fails to relax and therefore hinders the passage of food and fluid into the stomach. Treatment with balloon dilatation of the affected part of the oesophagus can be attempted but are often short-lived and surgery is frequently required as a more lasting solution.

Under general anaesthesia, 5 small keyhole incisions are made on the abdomen and laparoscopic instruments are introduced. The lower oesophagus is approached and a lengthwise cut is made in the muscle layer of the lower oesophagus. Care is taken to cut only the muscle layer, leaving the inner lining of the oesophagus intact. As this procedure is often complicated by acid reflux after the operation, a partial or complete fundoplication is also performed at the same time to minimise this.

Intake of food should become more comfortable soon after surgery and a near-normal diet can be maintained.

Oesophageal Metal Stenting

Most stents are placed distally and across the gastroesophageal junction, but proximal stent placement (which requires more precise placement) can also be performed. Complications include bleeding and perforation (which are rare) as well as migration, tumor overgrowth, and tumor ingrowth (which are more common).