Neuro-ophthalmology is an academically-oriented subspecialty that merges the fields of neurology and ophthalmology, often dealing with complex systemic diseases that have manifestations in the visual system. Neuro-ophthalmologists initially complete a residency in either neurology or ophthalmology, then do a fellowship in the complementary field. Since diagnostic studies can be normal in patients with significant neuro-ophthalmic disease, a detailed medical history and physical exam is essential, and neuro-ophthalmologists often spend a significant amount of time with their patients.
Common pathology referred to a neuro-ophthalmologist includes afferent visual system disorders (e.g. optic neuritis, optic neuropathy, papilledema, brain tumors or strokes) and efferent visual system disorders (e.g. anisocoria, diplopia, ophthalmoplegia, ptosis, nystagmus, blepharospasm, seizures of the eye or eye muscles, and hemifacial spasm)
Diabetic retinopathy is a condition that occurs in people who have diabetes. It causes progressive damage to the retina, the light-sensitive lining at the back of the eye. Diabetic retinopathy is a serious sight-threatening complication of diabetes.
Diabetes interferes with the body’s ability to use and store sugar (glucose). The disease is characterized by too much sugar in the blood, which can cause damage throughout the body, including the eyes.
The condition usually affects both eyes. The longer a person has diabetes, the more likely they will develop diabetic retinopathy. If left untreated, diabetic retinopathy can cause blindness.
Symptoms of diabetic retinopathy include:
- Seeing spots or floaters
- Blurred vision
- Having a dark or empty spot in the center of your vision
- Difficulty seeing well at night
Often the early stages of diabetic retinopathy have no visual symptoms. Early detection and treatment can limit the potential for significant vision loss from diabetic retinopathy.
Treatment for Retinopathy
Treatment of diabetic retinopathy varies depending on the extent of the disease. People with diabetic retinopathy may need laser surgery to seal leaking blood vessels or to discourage other blood vessels from leaking. People with advanced cases of diabetic retinopathy might need a surgical procedure to remove and replace the gel-like fluid in the back of the eye, called the vitreous. Surgery may also be needed to repair a retinal detachment.
Dry Eye Treatment
Dry eye syndrome is a chronic and typically progressive condition. Depending on its cause and severity, it may not be completely curable. But in most cases, dry eyes can be managed successfully, usually resulting in noticeably greater eye comfort, fewer dry eye symptoms, and sometimes sharper vision as well.
Because dry eye disease can have a number of causes, a variety of treatment approaches are used.
The following is a list of dry eye treatments that are commonly used by eye doctors to reduce the signs and symptoms of dry eyes. Your eye doctor may recommend only one of these dry eye treatments or a combination of treatments, depending on the cause(s) and severity of the condition.
- Artificial Tears
- Steroid Eye Drops
- Punctal Plugs
- Meibomian Gland Expression
- Warm Compresses
- Intense Pulsed Light
- Nutritional Supplements
- Home Remedies for Dry Eyes
This serious eye condition happens when your retina — a layer of tissue at the back of your eye that processes light — pulls away from the tissue around it. Since the retina can’t work properly when this happens, you could have permanent vision loss if you don’t get it treated right away.
You’re more likely to get one if you:
- Are severely nearsighted
- Have had an eye injury or cataract surgery
- Have a family history of retinal detachment
A detached retina doesn’t hurt. It can happen with no warning at all. But you might notice:
- Flashes of light
- Seeing lots of new “floaters” (small flecks or threads)
- Darkening of your peripheral (side) vision
If you have any of those symptoms, contact your eye doctor immediately. Sometimes it comes before full detachment. It usually has the same symptoms. If your retina gets torn, the fluid inside your eye can leak underneath and separate the retina from its underlying tissue. That’s retinal detachment.
Treatment for Retinal Detachment
There are several options:
Laser (thermal) or Freezing (cryopexy)
Both methods can repair a tear if it is diagnosed early enough. The procedures are often done in the doctor’s office.
This works well for a tear that’s small and easy to close. The doctor injects a tiny gas bubble into the vitreous, a clear, gel-like substance between your lens and retina. It rises and presses against the retina, closing the tear. She can use a laser or cryopexy to seal the tear.
In this surgical procedure, the doctor sews a silicone band (buckle) around the white of your eye (she’ll call it the sclera). This pushes it toward the tear until it heals. This band is invisible and is permanently attached. Laser or cryo treatment can seal the tear.
This surgery is used to repair large tears. The doctor removes the vitreous and replaces it with a saline solution. Depending on the size of the tear, she might use various combinations of vitrectomy, buckle, laser, and gas bubble to repair your retina.
In case you missed the Interesting Facts I Bet You Never Knew About Ophthamology part-1 – Click Here
In case you missed the Interesting Facts I Bet You Never Knew About Ophthamology part-2 – Click Here
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